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The two defenders are not allowed to communicate in any way except by their choice of cards to play. The game can also be played by four players.
In this case, the dealer will sit out the round that was dealt, while the player to his right will play the role taken by the dealer in the three-player variant.
A central aspect of the game are the three coexisting varieties called "suit", "grand" and "null" games, that differ in suit order, scoring and even overall goal to achieve.
Each round of the game starts with a bidding phase to determine the declarer and the required minimum game value explained below. Then, ten tricks are played, allowing players to take trick points.
Each card has a card value except in null games and is worth that number of points for the player winning the trick.
The total value of all cards is points. The declarer's goal is to take at least 61 points in tricks in order to win that round of the game.
Otherwise, the defending team wins the round. Points from tricks are not directly added to the players' overall score, they are used only to determine the outcome of the game win or loss for declarer , although winning by certain margins may increase the score for that round.
After each round a score is awarded in accordance with the game value. If the declarer wins they are awarded a positive score, if they lose the score is doubled and subtracted from the declarer's tally i.
In tournaments a winning declarer gets an additional 50 points if they win, if the defending team wins however they receive 40 points each in addition to the declarer losing twice the game's value in points.
The pack consists of 32 cards. Some players in Eastern and Southern Germany and Austria prefer traditional German packs with suits of acorns , leaves , hearts and bells , and card values of deuce Daus , king König , Ober , Unter , 10, 9, 8, and 7 in all four suits.
By contrast, regions of the former West Germany had adopted a French-suited pack. At the beginning of each round each player is dealt ten cards, with the two remaining cards the so-called Skat being put face down in the middle of the table.
Dealing follows this pattern: deal three cards each, then deal the Skat , then four cards each, then three cards again "three— Skat —four—three".
In four-player rounds, the dealer does not receive any cards and skips actual play of the round. He or she may peek into the hand of one other player if allowed to do so but never into the Skat.
Dealing rotates clockwise around the table, so that the player sitting to the left of the dealer will be dealer for the next round.
After the cards have been dealt, and before the deal is played out, a bidding or auction German : Reizen is held to decide:.
The goal for each player during the bidding is to bid a game value as high as their card holding would allow, but never higher than necessary to win the bidding.
How the actual game value is determined is explained in detail below and is necessary to understand in order to know how high one can safely bid.
It is possible for a player to overbid, which leads to an automatic loss of the game in question. Often this does not become obvious before the player picks up the Skat , or even not before the end of the game in question in case of a hand game, when the Skat is not picked up.
Players have therefore to exercise careful scrutiny during bidding, as not to incur an unnecessary loss. The bidding may also give away some information about what cards a player may or may not hold.
Experienced players will be able to use this to their advantage. The game value also called hand value , German : Spielwert is what the game will be worth after all tricks have been played.
It is determined not only by the 10 cards held, but also by the two-card Skat. The Skat always belongs to the declarer, and if it contains certain high cards this may change the game value.
It is therefore not possible in general to determine the exact game value before knowing the Skat. The game value is determined by the type of the game and the game level as explained below for the suit, grand and null games.
In a suit game German : Farbspiel , one of the four suits is the trump suit. Each suit has a base value German : Grundwert , as follows:. This base value is then multiplied by the multiplier game level German : Spielstufe or Gewinngrad to determine the game value, so:.
The multiplier game level of 1 for becoming declarer is always assumed. It is then increased by one for each of the following:.
In case of a Hand game declarer does not pick up the Skat , the following special cases are allowed. Each one increases the multiplier game level by another point:.
Cards in the trump suit are ordered as follows this is important to know when counting the length of the matador's jack straight :.
The non-trump suit cards are ranked AK-Q or AK-O for the German pack respectively. As mentioned above, the cards in the Skat are to be included when determining the multiplier game level also in case of the Hand game, where the Skat is unknown until after the deal has been played out.
During bidding, each player therefore has incomplete information regarding the true game value. The final game value is calculated by multiplying the base value for the suit by the multiplier game level:.
Grand game is a special case of suit game, in which only the Jacks are trumps in the same order as in the suit game:.
The base value for the grand game is 24 in the official rules. It used to be 20 until , and many hobbyists continued to use 20 well into the postwar era.
All other rules for determining game value are as in a suit game, that is, the base value of 24 is multiplied by the multiplier game level.
In the null game, declarer promises not to take any tricks at all. There is no trump suit, 10s are sorted directly above 9s, and jacks are treated as normal suit cards sorted between 10 and queen.
Thus the cards are ordered: A-K-Q-J The game values of null games are fixed, as follows:. The following examples give a player's holding and the contents of the Skat which will be unknown to all players during the bidding and explain how to derive the game value.
The multiplier game level will be 2 1 for matador's jack straight plus 1 for becoming declarer. Note that game value is dependent not only on the cards held including the Skat but also on which game is being declared and the outcome of the play.
Each holding can thus be evaluated differently by different players. A risk-taking player might be willing to declare Hand on a holding on which another player might not — these two players will therefore give different valuations to the same holding.
However, after all tricks have been played, it is always possible to determine the exact game value by combining the actual holding with the type of game and outcome of the play.
Only then it becomes apparent if declarer has won or lost if he overbid. Assuming a trump suit of hearts in a suit game, this holding will have a different valuation before and after the Skat has been examined.
With Hearts as trump, the game value will always be at least that much. Now, assuming declarer wins by taking 95 points in tricks, after having declared Hand and Schneider , the actual game value will be as follows:.
The player could have bid up to that value during the bidding. Now for the special cases: if you think you can do more than just win, you can add points for the special cases.
The highest possible multiplier game level is that is with or without four jacks and all seven cards of trump suit including those in the Skat , if any 11, plus the maximum of 7 for becoming declarer, Hand , Schneider , declaring Schneider , Schwarz , declaring Schwarz and Ouvert.
The order of bidding is determined by the seating order. Starting from the left of the dealer players are numbered clockwise: the first seat German : Vorhand , the second seat German : Mittelhand and the third seat German : Hinterhand.
In a three-player game, the dealer will be the third seat. In a four-player game the third seat will be to the right of the dealer.
Bidding starts by the player in second seat making a call to the player in first seat on which the latter can hold or pass.
If the first seat player holds, the second seat player can make a higher call or pass himself. This continues until either of the two players passes.
The player in third seat is then allowed to continue making calls to the player who has not yet passed. Bidding ends as soon as at least two players have passed.
It is also possible for all three players to pass. The player who continues in this mnemonic is either the dealer in a three-player game or the player in third seat.
The mnemonic is commonly used among casual players. Example: Anna, Bernard and Clara are playing, and seated in that order around the table.
Anna deals the cards. Clara makes the first call to Bernard, who passes right away. The second part of the auction is similar to the first part, but takes place between R and the survivor of the first part i.
As the junior player, R either passes or bids a succession of numbers, the first of which must be higher than any number mentioned in the first part of the auction.
To each number bid by R, the survivor must answer "yes" or "pass". The winner of the second part of the auction becomes the declarer, and the bid is the last number the declarer said or accepted.
If both M and R pass without having bid, then F can either be declarer at the lowest bid 18 , or can throw in the cards without play. If the cards are thrown in there is no score for the hand, and the next dealer deals.
To remember whose turn it is to start the bidding, German players sometimes say "geben, hören, sagen" deal, listen, speak , pointing in turn to dealer, forehand and middlehand.
If middlehand forgets to begin, forehand can start proceedings by saying "I'm forehand" or "I'm listening", or "Speak to me!
If you win the bidding you are entitled to pick up the two skat cards, add them to your hand without showing them to the other players, and discard any two cards face down.
The cards discarded may include one or both of the cards picked up, and their value counts along with your tricks.
Having discarded, you declare your game. If you looked at the skat, your contract is a skat game. There are seven possibilities:.
Diamonds , Hearts , Spades , Clubs in which the named suit is trumps and the declarer tries to take at least 61 card points ,.
Grand in which the jacks are the only trumps and the declarer tries to take at least 61 card points ,. Null in which there are no trumps and the declarer tries to lose every trick ,.
You may choose not to look at the skat cards, but to play with the 10 cards you were originally dealt. If you don't look at the skat you are playing a hand game , and again there are seven possibilities: Diamonds Hand, Hearts Hand, Spades Hand, Clubs Hand, Grand Hand, Null Hand and Null Ouvert Hand.
In this case no one must look at the skat cards until after the play. If you are declarer in a Suit Hand or Grand Hand game, you can increase the value of the game by announcing Schneider undertaking to win at least 90 card points , or Schwarz undertaking to win all the tricks , or Open Ouvert undertaking to win all the tricks with your cards exposed.
Such announcements must be made before the lead to the first trick. These announcements are not allowed if declarer has looked at the skat.
Also obviously they do not apply in Null games. Play is clockwise. No matter who is the declarer, forehand always leads to the first trick.
Players must follow suit if they can. A player with no card of the suit led may play any card. Note that in Suit and Grand games the jacks belong to the trump suit, not to the suits marked on them.
For example if hearts are trumps, the jack of clubs is the highest heart , and has nothing whatever to do with the club suit. A trick is won by the highest card of the suit led, unless it contains a trump, in which case the highest trump wins it.
The winner of a trick leads to the next. If you are declarer in a Suit or Grand game you win if the cards in your tricks plus the skat contain at least 61 card points.
The opponents win if their combined tricks contain at least 60 card points. If the declarer's opponents take 30 points or fewer in tricks, they are Schneider.
If they take 31 or more they are said to be out of Scheider. If they take no tricks at all, they are Schwarz. The same applies to the declarer - as declarer, you are Schneider if you win 30 card points or less including the skat, and Schwarz if you lose every trick.
Note that Schwarz depends on tricks not points - if a side wins just one trick and it has no card points in it, that is sufficient to get them out of Schwarz.
If you are declarer in Null or Null Ouvert , you win the game if you manage to lose every trick.
If you take a trick, you have lost and the play of the hand ceases at that point. If you are declarer in an Open Ouvert contract - i.
Play then proceeds normally, and you play from your exposed hand. The opponents are not allowed to discuss tactics. The value of a Suit or Grand contract is obtained by multiplying together two numbers: the base value and the multiplier.
The base value depends on the trump suit as follows:. Open contracts are extremely rare: you can only play open if you did not look at the skat and you also undertake to win every trick.
By implication, an open contract includes announcements of Schneider and Schwarz,so you count: matadors, game, Hand, Schneider, Schneider announced, Schwarz, Schwarz announced, and Open.
The jack of clubs and any top trumps in unbroken sequence with it are called matadors. If as declarer you have such a sequence in your original hand plus the skat, you are with that number of matadors.
If there is such a sequence in the opponents' combined hands, declarer is against that number of matadors. Note that for the purposes of matadors, cards in the skat count as part of declarer's hand, even though in a Hand game declarer does not know what is in the skat when choosing the game.
The game multiplier is always counted, whether declarer wins or loses. The calculation of the value of a game sounds something like this: "with 2, game 3, Schneider 4, 4 times spades is 44".
The declarer must always be with or against at least one matador the jack of clubs must be somewhere , so the smallest possible multiplier is 2, and the smallest possible game value and the lowest possible bid is These are easy to score.
Each possible Null contract has a fixed value unaffected by multipliers. As with all contracts, an unsuccessful declarer loses twice the value of the game.
The Null values are:. These rather eccentric looking numbers are chosen to fit between the other contract values, each being slightly below a multiple of Before the rule change of 1st Jan , Null Hand cost only 35 when lost and Null Ouvert Hand cost only 59 - see scoring variations.
If declarer wins the game and the value of the game is as least as much as the bid, then the value of the game is added to the declarer's cumulative score.
If the declarer loses the game and the value of the game is as least as much as the bid, then twice the value of the game is subtracted from the declarer's score.
If the value of the declarer's game turns out to be less than the bid then the declarer automatically loses - it does not matter how many card points were taken.
The amount subtracted from the declarer's score is twice the least multiple of the base value of the game actually played which would have fulfilled the bid.
Note that the above are the official rules as from 1st January Before then, scores for lost games played from the hand were not doubled see scoring variations.
If as declarer you announce Schneider but take less than 90 card points, or if you announce Schwarz or Open and lose a trick, you lose, counting all the multipliers you would have won if you had succeeded.
Example : Middlehand holds J, J, 10, K, 9, 8, A, A, 10, 7, and decides to play Clubs Hand. This should normally be worth 48 game points "against 2, game 3, hand 4, 4 time clubs is 48".
Rearhand has a Null Ouvert and bids up to 46, to which M says yes. M plays clubs hand and takes 74 card points including the skat cards , but unfortunately the skat contains J, Q.
M is therefore with 1 matador not against 2 as expected , and the game is worth only 36 "with 1, game 2, hand 3 times clubs" , which is less than the bid.
M therefore loses 96 game points twice the 48 points which would be the minimum value in clubs which would fulfill the bid. IUCN Pridobljeno: 6.
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